Bacteria resistant to drugs are stopping us from treating infectious diseases and undermining medical advances. So what can we do about it? This WHO Antibiotic Awareness Week Dr Jonathan Pearce, Head of Infections and Immunity at the MRC, explains why understanding how resistance develops and spreads is key to tackling antibiotic resistance. And how using this knowledge, we can find creative new ways of preventing and treating infections.
Enterobacteria grown on a selective agar plate.
Antibiotic resistance is now recognised as one of the most serious threats to human health, spreading across national boundaries. It arises from a complex interplay between biomedical, animal, social, cultural and environmental factors. If we are to meet this challenge, we need to take both an international and interdisciplinary approach.
In her runner-up article for our 2017 Max Perutz Science Writing Award Nadine Mirza, a PhD student at the University of Manchester, explains why changes are needed to a routine test for diagnosing dementia, unbiased by language or culture, to prevent incorrect diagnoses.
Have you heard the saying “No ifs ands or buts”? Associated with grannies and teachers, you’d be hard pressed to find someone who hasn’t. It’s also a saying used in the ACE, a test implemented across the UK to detect dementia. An individual has to read the saying out loud with correct pronunciation. When directly translated into Urdu it loses meaning and becomes gibberish and reading out gibberish isn’t a smooth task. Even a fluent Urdu speaker might fail. But would we attribute that to dementia? Apparently, yes.
By studying large groups of people over time, researchers are trying to spot early signs of diseases, including dementia. As large studies are huge undertakings it makes sense to check what’s already out there before setting up a new one – but this is no easy task. A new tool aims to help by collecting neurodegenerative disease cohort studies in one place. Professor Dag Aarsland, a leading dementia researcher, put the JPND Global Cohort Portal through its paces.
I study a specific type of dementia called dementia with Lewy bodies. Despite being the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia, we know little about how it progresses. This information is important to inform diagnosis and research.
Collating existing data
In 2014, I led an international working group supported by the EU Joint Programme for Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND). It focused on solving some of the challenges of using cohorts – studies involving large groups of people – for research on dementia with Lewy bodies.
Our working group agreed that we need to combine data, collected in past and existing cohort studies, to define criteria for early diagnosis of this common type of dementia. To do this, we need a full view of what data is already out there, something that the new JPND Global Cohort Portal offers.