Could gut infections be making the standard polio vaccine ineffective in children in low-income countries? Edward Parker, a PhD student at Imperial College London is trying to find out, as he explains in his article commended in the 2014 Max Perutz Science Writing Award.
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was never meant to last this long.
In 1988, when the campaign was launched, there was considerable optimism that polio would not see the end of the century. Although this deadline has long since passed, the progress made by the eradication initiative should not be underestimated: in what is arguably the greatest onslaught against a disease in history, polio has been reduced from an infection with a global distribution, responsible for 350,000 cases of paralysis each year, to one that is on the brink of extinction. Just 223 cases of the disease were reported in 2012 ― the lowest number on record.
But polio is a wily foe. Despite exhaustive vaccination campaigns, the virus has never been eliminated in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria. What’s more, polio has recently been on the move. After cases in Ethiopia, Somalia, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Syria, and Iraq, in May 2014 the World Health Organization declared the spread of polio to be an international public health emergency. Read more
Newcastle University’s Thomas Hall listens to the chatter between neurons to find signals which could help restore movement to people paralysed by strokes or spinal injuries. He describes his research in his commended entry for the 2014 Max Perutz Science Writing Award.
I visit Charlotte on a Saturday morning, arriving to the smell of fresh baking. After seeing her grandchildren, we head to the village hall for a surprisingly competitive monthly bake-off. But I’m not here just for tea and cake. A year ago, aged 73, Charlotte suffered a stroke, leaving her wheelchair-bound and with her right arm almost completely paralysed. One day she was working as a freelance architect; the next, she was unable to even write or dress herself.
But six months later, in 2034, Charlotte became one of around 200 patients worldwide fitted with a revolutionary new medical device called a ‘brain-computer interface’, or BCI.
Back at home, she shows me the scar on her scalp where doctors implanted thousands of microscopic electrodes in the part of her brain that controls her right arm — the part that was ‘disconnected’ by the stroke. Read more
In her runner-up article for the 2014 Max Perutz Science Writing Award Wiebke Nahrendorf, a PhD student at the MRC National Institute for Medical Research, explains why she’s been infecting volunteers with malaria in the name of research.
Nijmegen, The Netherlands. It is cold and a slight drizzle makes it uncomfortable to roam the campus of Radboud University. It seems like an unlikely place to study a tropical disease. And yet behind the walls of the university medical centre an angry buzz emerges from cups, which look just like the ones for take-away coffee ― only with a bit of white netting on top. The source of the buzzing: fifteen mosquitoes in each pot. These mosquitoes are infected with the deadliest parasite on earth: Plasmodium, which causes malaria. And they are hungry. For human blood.
In the waiting room two dozen volunteers are about to be called in to put their left arm on to a cup filled with these mosquitoes, which, while sucking blood, will infect them with malaria. But HOLD ON! That seems like a terrible idea! Of course, these brave volunteers knew what they were in for and there is a whole battalion of dedicated doctors to check on them 24/7 and treat them if necessary, but still… Why are we infecting healthy Dutch people with malaria? Read more